Climate monitoring is a fundamental part of governments and decision-makers who need to understand its evolution and effects in order to define and implement appropriate adaptation and mitigation policies, which involve investments at long term. Many monitoring hot topics are concerned, such as: urban heat islands, flood risk due to extreme climate events, adaptive integrated spatial planning of lands in the cities, air quality and carbon dioxide emissions, etc.
EarthClimate pilot is proposed in the frame of the SnapEarth project and has the ambition to tackle the above-mentioned issues by delivering value-added services to support urban climate monitoring activities. EarthClimate will simplify the use of climate-related EO data, it provides data, tools and services, tailored to the needs of the citizens, planners and decision-makers, enabling informed decision making.
The EarthClimate pilot will propose 3 different services to analyse data related to:
- Service 1: Air quality monitoring - presenting the air quality situation in Europe, based on data from Copernicus Sentinel 5P;
- Service 2: Urban Heat Map - providing maps that select places with surface temperature distribution;
- Service 3: Weather and allergens - which allows automatic downloading of forecasts of: weather, pollutants and allergens from Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS)
Fig. 1 Concept of the EarthClimate
1. Service 1 - Air quality monitoring:
- Copernicus Sentinel 5P data –satellite mission dedicated to monitoring our atmosphere.
- information for indicators: AER AI (Aerosol Index), CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), HCHO (formaldehyde), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), O3 (ozone), SO2 (sulphur dioxide).
- Land Cover: provided by EarthSignature. Obtained results will be overlayed on the raster data (Corine Land Cover) received from the EarthSignature map service to establish the objects which generate increased values of pollutants.
- Other source data: local data used by local authorities and agencies to monitor air quality around urban areas
- The data will be systematically updated.
The system added value is not only based on the provision of access via user-friendly visualization tools, but also:
- Empowering end-users with the capability for potential data post-processing without any specialized knowledge in data conversion, or specialized software requirements (since it can be analyzed with any text editor, spreadsheet or open GIS), and also
- Increasing potential vertical integration with end-user systems allowing unattended distribution via synchronization procedures.
2. Service 2 - Urban Heat Map monitoring:
- Copernicus Sentinel 3 data - to analyse the data of earth surface temperature indicators
- Land Cover: provided by EarthSignature Changes in land cover force climate changes like e.g. temperature
- Preparation of a report summarising the data analysis and presenting them to representatives of government institutions.
The added value is the ease of generating surface temperature information from satellite images. By providing a product that allows the user to easily read the information they need.
3. Service 3 - Weather and allergens:
- The service concerns the automatic download of weather as well as pollutants and allergens forecasts from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS).
- the user will receive information on data forecasting for 5 indicators: NO2, SO2, CO, O3, PM2.5.
Thanks to SnapEarth self-service Web portal, the use of these three services will be simplified and the decision making is accelerated. Furthermore, the proposed machine learning process incorporated in EarthSignature will serve to produce Climate Semantic EO datasets in real time and with worldwide land cover. The processing framework will be supplied by SafeScale and the computing infrastructure deployed on future Copernicus DIASs.
EarthClimate will propose to users a set of added value services like:
- Reports over an area of interest over the defined time period
- Real – time value added data over an area of interest
- Forecast report to predict future changes over an area of interest
EarthClimate User Interface:
The data will be implemented into the EarthClimate Pilot (application), and as part of the User Dashboard, users will be able to correctly display the necessary information.