Climate monitoring is a fundamental part of governments and decision-makers who need to understand its evolution and effects in order to define and implement appropriate adaptation and mitigation policies, which involve investments at long-term. Many monitoring hot topics are concerned, such as: urban heat islands, flood risk due to extreme climate events, adaptive integrated spatial planning of lands in the cities, air quality and carbon dioxide emissions, etc.
EarthClimate pilot is proposed in the frame of the SnapEarth project and has the ambition to tackle the above-mentioned issues delivering two value-added services to support climate monitoring activities:
- Air quality and carbon dioxide emissions monitoring
- Urban heat islands monitoring
Proposed EarthClimate services will be combined with other Copernicus data and local data coming from sensors and monitoring programs concerning air quality and heat islands monitoring:
1. Air quality and carbon dioxide emissions monitoring:
- Land Cover: provided by EarthSignature. Used for studies of e.g. global carbon cycle, changing greenhouse gas and aerosol changes and sinks
- Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR): FAPAR plays a critical role in estimation of the carbon balance, quantification of CO2 assimilation
- Burned Area: measurements of burned area are used for estimations of trace gases and aerosols as well as direct input to climate and carbon-cycle models
- Other source data: local data used by local authorities and agencies to monitor air quality around urban areas
- Copernicus Sentinel 5P data –satellite mission dedicated to monitoring our atmosphere.
2. Urban heat islands monitoring:
- Land Cover: provided by EarthSignature Changes in land cover force climate changes like e.g. temperature
- Land surface temperature (LST): the radiative skin temperature of the land surface usually used for climate change monitoring
- Surface Albedo: The surface albedo quantifies the fraction of the sunlight reflected by the surface of the Earth. Surface albedos of the global landmass are required among others by climate change analysis regarding e.g. temperatures.
- Other source data: local data used by local authorities and agencies to monitor temperatures of heat island around urban areas; Copernicus Sentinel 3 data used to detect heat stress, which is useful for monitoring urban heat islands ect.
Thanks to SnapEarth self-service Web portal, the use of these two services will be simplified and the decision making is accelerated. Furthermore, the proposed machine learning process incorporated in EarthSignature will serve to produce Climate Semantic EO datasets in real time and with worldwide land cover. The processing framework will be supplied by SafeScale and the computing infrastructure deployed on future Copernicus DIASs.
EarthClimate will propose to users a set of added value services like:
- Reports over an area of interest over the defined time period
- Real – time value added data over an area of interest
- Forecast report to predict future changes over an area of interest